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Prevalence, Location, and Size of Maxillary Sinus Septa: Computed Tomography Scan Analysis
Ferial Taleghani, Maryam Tehranchi, Shahryar Shahab, Zahra Zohri
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:11-15] [No of Hits : 3214]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1980 | FREE


Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anatomy of the maxillary sinus in relation to its position and the height of its septa, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, 300 CBCT images of maxillary sinuses of patients with posterior maxillary edentulism were evaluated. The maxillary sinus septa were evaluated in relation to their prevalence, height, and position; t-test and Mann–Whitney tests were used for the analysis of data.

Results: Sinus septa were detected in 44% of the subjects, with equal frequencies in the anterior, middle, and posterior positions. The mean height of the septa was 3.6 ± 1.56 mm.

Conclusion: In a population of Iranian subjects, in half of the cases, the sinus septa might be present in the anterior, middle, and posterior positions.

Clinical significance: In order to avoid intraoperative problems during sinus lift procedures, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the sinus, preferably with the use of CBCT.

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography, Dental implant, Maxillary sinus septa.

How to cite this article: Taleghani F, Tehranchi M, Shahab S, Zohri Z. Prevalence, Location, and Size of Maxillary Sinus Septa: Computed Tomography Scan Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):11-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Gummy Smile
Afnan F Al-Fouzan, Lamia S Mokeem, Reem T Al-Saqat, Maisa A Alfalah, Mana A Alharbi, Abdullah E Al-Samary
[Year:2017] [Month:June] [Volume:18 ] [Number:6] [Pages:117] [Pages No:474-478] [No of Hits : 1747]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2068 | FREE


Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin (Botox) injections as a conservative treatment for gummy smile.

Materials and methods: An experimental in vivo study was conducted at a dermatology clinic in Riyadh in January 2016. The study included 23 female patients who ranged from 20 to 50 years and were treated with Botox injections due to excessive maxillary gingival display. The patients with short clinical crowns or long maxilla, those who were pregnant or breastfeeding, and patients with neuromuscular disorders were excluded. Patients received Botox type I, injected 3 mm lateral to the alar-fascial groove at the level of the nostril opening at the insertion of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle. Photos were taken of the patient’s smile before and after the treatment and were then uploaded to the SketchUp program to calculate improvements in gingival display. The distance from the lower margin of the upper lip to the gingival margin was calculated pre- and posttreatment. The amount of improvement was calculated as (pre-Botox treatment - post-Botox treatment/pre-Botox treatment × 100). The mean percentage of the total improvement was analyzed.

Results: A total of 23 female patients received treatment to improve their gummy smile. Improvement was clear 2 weeks after Botox injection. The mean percentage of improvement in the gingival display was 99.6%.

Conclusion: Botox type I is an effective conservative technique to improve gummy smile caused by muscular hyperfunction.

Clinical significance: Patients’ retention highly indicated that they were satisfied with the provided treatment by Botox injections. Improving the quality of life with least painful experience and immediate results was the major advantage for Botox type I.

Keywords: Botulinum toxin, Botulinum toxin type I, Experimental in vivo study, Gummy smile.

How to cite this article: Al-Fouzan AF, Mokeem LS, Al-Saqat RT, Alfalah MA, Alharbi MA, Al-Samary AE. Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Gummy Smile. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(6):474-478.

Source of support: This research project was supported by a grant from the “Research Center of the Center for Female Scientific and Medical Colleges,” Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University.

Conflict of interest: None

Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing
Mohammed M Al Moaleem, Abdulmajeed S Okshah, Ahid A Al-Shahrani, Abdulkhaliq Ali F Alshadidi, Fawzia I Shaabi, Abdulaziz H Mobark, Khurshid A Mattoo
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:23-28] [No of Hits : 1413]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1982 | FREE


Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) among undergraduate medical students in the presence of khat chewing over a period of time.

Materials and methods: Totally, 186 medical college students (age ≤ 20 years) were randomly selected for the present study. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to age, under 20 and above 20 years. The study was based on Fonseca’s anamnestic index and its questionnaire, which is composed of 10 questions and classifies the severity of TMDs. The obtained data were coded and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program for analysis using chi-square test at significance level of 5%.

Results: Most of the participants were male (68.8%) students and older than 20 years (63%). Those who reported with khat chewing comprised 31.7%. From the total samples, only 38.0% was classified as having mild TMD and 0.50% were classified as having severe TMD. Poor dental articulation, grinding of teeth, headaches, tense personalities, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) clicking were the most common clinical findings. The mean scores showed no significant difference among gender (p ≤ 0.29) and the khat chewing (p ≤ 0.531) groups for the 10 questions. However, it showed significant difference among age groups (p ≤ 0.025).

Conclusion: The majority of subjects complained of mild TMD, while only a few cases showed a moderate TMD among different age groups. The most frequently reported dysfunctions were related to poor dental articulation and grinding of the teeth, frequent headaches, the clicking of joint, and tense personalities. No significant difference was found between gender and khat and nonkhat chewing groups.

Clinical significance: Khat chewing is a parafunctional habit and affects dental occlusion (especially cuspal wear) in terms of anterior guidance. Such alterations in occlusion are known to be one of the causative (predisposing) factors of TMD.

Keywords: Catha edulis, Dental occlusion, Fonseca’s anamnestic index, Fonseca’s questionnaire, Medical students, Saudi Arabia.

How to cite this article: Al Moaleem MM, Okshah AS, Al-ShahraniAA,AlshadidiAAF,Shaabi FI, MobarkAH, MattooKA. Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):23-28.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Shaping of the Root Canal System: A Multistep Technique
Livio Gallottini
[Year:2017] [Month:September] [Volume:18 ] [Number:9] [Pages:112] [Pages No:851-855] [No of Hits : 1383]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2138 | FREE


Aim: The aim of this scientific work is to illustrate the technique of shaping the root canal system using the multistep technique.

Background: Over time, various endodontic instrumentation techniques have been put forward, from the “step-back” technique (apical-coronal) to the “crown-down” technique (coronal-apical), the “double-flared” technique, and the most recent “single-length” technique.

Technique: The multistep technique involves six steps, one of the main objectives of these being the safety of the use of mechanical instruments with a reduction in the risk that they fracture. This technique (“mixed”) provides for the use of both manual instruments in stainless steel and mechanical instruments in nickel titanium (Ni-Ti).

Conclusion: The multistep technique is based on a standardized, flexible, and clinical protocol, which can provide for a reduction in the number of endodontic passages and instruments used and, therefore, a simplification of the operating procedure depending on both the difficulty of the root canals and the competence of the operator.

Clinical significance: This technique is a technique for shaping the endodontic space that allows the set objectives of endodontic therapy to be reached in a predictable way with a reduced risk of iatrogenic complications.

Keywords: Clinical technique, Endodontic, Files, Instruments, Nickel, Preparation, Reciprocating, Root canal, Rotary, Shaping, Titanium.

How to cite this article: Gallottini L. Shaping of the Root Canal System: A Multistep Technique. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(9):851-855.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Laser-based Disinfection of the Root Canal System: An Update
Zahed Mohammadi, Hamid Jafarzadeh, Sousan Shalavi, Rasoul Sahebalam, Jun-Ichiro Kinoshita
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:74-77] [No of Hits : 1300]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1993 | FREE

Introduction: Microorganisms have been considered to have played a critical role in the initiation and development of pulpoperiapical diseases. Some evidences have shown that mechanical instrumentation may leave considerable portions of canal surfaces undebrided. Therefore, some supplemental methods, such as the use of chemical solutions and/or lasers, have been introduced to further disinfect the complicated canal anatomy and destroy as many microorganisms as possible. The purpose of this review was to address a brief review of characteristics of lasers and their effects to disinfect the root canal in endodontics.
Keywords: Disinfection, Laser characteristics, Photoninduced photoacoustic streaming, Root canal system, Sodium hypochlorite.
How to cite this article: Mohammadi Z, Jafarzadeh H, Shalavi S, Sahebalam R, Kinoshita JI. Laser-based Disinfection of the Root Canal System: An Update. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):74-77.
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None

Wear Resistance of Bulk-fill Composite Resin Restorative Materials Polymerized under different Curing Intensities
Fahad Alkhudhairy
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:39-43] [No of Hits : 1253]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1985 | FREE


Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the wear resistance of four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials cured using high- and low-intensity lights.

Materials and methods: Twenty-four samples were prepared from each composite resin material (Tetric N-Ceram, SonicFill, Smart Dentin Replacement, Filtek Bulk-Fill) resulting in a total of 96 samples; they were placed into a mold in a single increment. All of the 96 samples were cured using the Bluephase N light curing unit for 20 seconds. Half of the total specimens (n = 48) were light cured using high-intensity output (1,200 mW/cm2), while the remaining half (n = 48) were light cured using low-intensity output (650 mW/cm2 ). Wear was analyzed by a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact optical profilometer (Contour GT-I, Bruker, Germany). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of surface loss (depth) after 120,000 cycles for each test material was calculated and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a significance level at p<0.05.

Results: The least mean surface loss was observed for SonicFill (186.52 µm) cured using low-intensity light. No significant difference in the mean surface loss was observed when comparing the four tested materials with each other without taking the curing light intensity into consideration (p = 0.352). A significant difference in the mean surface loss was observed between SonicFill cured using high-intensity light compared with that cured using low-intensity light (p <0.001).

Conclusion: A higher curing light intensity (1,200 mW/cm2) had no positive influence on the wear resistance of the four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials tested compared with lower curing light intensity (650 mW/cm2). Furthermore, SonicFill cured using low-intensity light was the most wear-resistant material tested, whereas Tetric N-Ceram cured using high-intensity light was the least wear resistant.

Clinical significance: The wear resistance was better with the newly introduced bulk-fill composite resins under low-intensity light curing.

Keywords: Bulk-fill, Composites, Light intensity, Wear resistance.

How to cite this article: Alkhudhairy F. Wear Resistance of Bulk-fill Composite Resin Restorative Materials Polymerized under different Curing Intensities. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):39-43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Treatment of Extrusive Luxation in Permanent Teeth: Literature Review with Systematic Criteria.
Marina F Amaral, Melyna M de Almeida, Lorraine P de Faria, Daniela A Brandini, Wilson R Poi, Roberta Okamoto
[Year:2017] [Month:March] [Volume:18 ] [Number:3] [Pages:85] [Pages No:241-245] [No of Hits : 1240]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2024 | FREE


Introduction: Extrusive luxation is a traumatic dental injury caused by the action of oblique forces, characterized by partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket. The ideal treatment for this type of trauma involves repositioning the tooth in its socket. However, in cases where the tooth cannot be repositioned, different options may be considered, such as intentional reattachment and orthodontic intrusion. The aim is to review the literature on the extrusive luxation of permanent teeth while assessing the risks of complications for two methods of delayed treatment for extrusive luxation.

Materials and methods: An electronic search from August 2005 to August 2014 was performed by two reviewers independently, and conflicts were resolved by a third reviewer. The databases used were PubMed and Scopus; the reviewers performed a manual search of the following journals: Dental Traumatology, American Journal of Orthodontics, and Clinical Oral Investigation.

Results: After removing the duplicate studies, 328 articles were found. Out of these, 321 were rejected as not addressing the proposed research topic. In addition, five articles were excluded because apical repositioning was used for treatment. Therefore, four articles formed the basis of the study.

Conclusion: Factors, such as root formation, the degree of tooth mobility, and the presence of tooth vitality were decisive for the choice of treatment. However, both treatments were effective and showed favorable results, i.e., without periodontal and root damage.

Clinical Significance: Knowledge of the risks of complications among two methods of delayed treatment for extrusive luxation, as well as other important factors to take into consideration when choosing a treatment assists dentists in improving the prognostic.

Keywords: Extrusive luxation, Orthodontic intrusion, Reimplantation, Tooth injuries.

How to cite this article: Amaral MF, de Almeida MM, de Faria LP, Brandini DA, Poi WR, Okamoto R. Treatment of Extrusive Luxation in Permanent Teeth: Literature Review with Systematic Criteria. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(3):241-245.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Comparative Study of Piezoelectric and Rotary Osteotomy Technique for Third Molar Impaction
Sulphi A Basheer, R Jay Govind, Augustine Daniel, George Sam, VJ Adarsh, Akshatha Rao
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:60-64] [No of Hits : 1196]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1990 | FREE

Introduction: Bone removal is necessary for extracting the third molars that are erupted, partially erupted, and/or impacted in bone. Hence, it is necessary to choose a surgical method or instruments that conform to anatomic landmarks and are based on physiological principles. Many authors have reported injuries to the adjacent tooth, especially the distal part of periodontium after removal of second molar. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess and compare the surgical and postsurgical outcomes of third molar removal using piezoelectric surgery and rotary bur.
Materials and methods: A total of 30 healthy adult individuals who were in need of prophylactic removal of impacted mandibular third molar tooth with ideal condition were included for the study. Individuals were divided randomly into study groups of 15 each, so that the difficulty of surgery will be the same in both the groups. Group I – piezoelectric osteotomy technique and group II – rotary osteotomy technique. The rotary device consists of a hand piece and a rotary speed ranging around 35,000 rpm was used. The piezoelectric device consists of a hand piece, and a frequency of 25 to 29 kHz with a microvibration of 60 to 200 mm/sec was used with a boosted working mode. Data were analyzed using unpaired t-test and qualitative data were analyzed using Fischer’s exact test.
Results: The average age of the study subjects in the piezosurgery group and rotary group was 28.40 ± 2.69 and 30.06 ± 3.15 years respectively. The time taken for removal of impacted tooth by rotary bur was less than that by piezoelectric device, which was significant statistically (p < 0.05). Until the 4th postoperative day, severity of pain experienced was more in the rotary group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.005). Mouth opening was significantly better in the piezoelectric group as compared with rotary bur until the 7th postoperative day.
Conclusion: The piezosurgery method reduces postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling. Also, it may play an important role in increasing bone density within the extraction socket and decreasing the amount of bone loss of adjacent tooth in the distal aspect.
Clinical significance: In clinical practice, piezosurgery plays an important role because piezosurgery reduces postoperative pain, trismus, and also swelling.
Keywords: Impacted tooth, Mouth opening, Pain, Piezoelectric osteotomy, Rotary osteotomy.
How to cite this article: Basheer SA, Govind RJ, Daniel A, Sam G, Adarsh VJ, Rao A. Comparative Study of Piezoelectric and Rotary Osteotomy Technique for Third Molar Impaction. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):60-64.
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None

Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.
Anzil KS Ali, Arshad Mohammed, Archana A Thomas, Shann Paul, M Shahul, K Kasim
[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18 ] [Number:8] [Pages:108] [Pages No:695-699] [No of Hits : 1184]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2109 | FREE


Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997, and the examination was carried out under natural light using mouth mirrors and probe. Data thus collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software package. Chisquare test was applied.

Results: Among the 2,163 workers, 1,952 were tobacco users and 211 were nonusers. Among the users, 1,021 use smokeless form, 372 use smoked form, and 559 use both. Premalignant lesions/conditions were more commonly seen with tobacco habit, with leukoplakia (14.75%) being the most common followed by oral submucous fibrosis in 201 (9.3%), candidiasis in 123 (5.7%), ulceration in 131 (6.05%), abscess in 59 (2.73%), smokers palate in 58 (2.68%), lichen planus in 21 (0.97%), and malignant tumor in 2 (0.1%).

Conclusion: Commonness of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was considerable among the workers. Control and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major backbones for the control of oral cancer.

Clinical significance: Building workers are unprotected from various health hazards at workplace. Lack of access to health services makes the situation unsatisfactory. Poor literacy and low socioeconomic status have resulted in practice of tobacco, smoking, and chewing in the majority of them. Hence, it is our responsibility to find and guide them with a proper oral health education.

Keywords: Cochin, Construction workers, Migrant workers, Tobacco users.

How to cite this article: Ali AKS, Mohammed A, Thomas AA, Paul S, Shahul M, Kasim K. Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):695-699.

Source of Support: Self-financed by the Department of Public Health Dentistry, St. Gregorios Dental College.

Conflict of Interest: None

Influence of Television Advertising on Behavior of Children across Socioeconomic Backgrounds
Rachana Bahuguna, Atul Jain, Divya Suryavanshi, Hemlata Chauhan, Suleiman A Khan, Ruchi Thakur
[Year:2017] [Month:January] [Volume:18 ] [Number:1] [Pages:79] [Pages No:52-56] [No of Hits : 1172]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1988 | FREE

Introduction: This research analyzed the influence of television on the behavior of children belonging to urban and rural socioeconomic backgrounds of Bhopal city and its vicinity.
Materials and methods: About 400 parents with children between 1 and 18 years of age were subjected to a self-designed questionnaire, which sought information regarding the television viewing habits of children. Differences in responses were noted between the subjects of urban and rural areas. Obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson’s chi-square test to determine the level of significance.
Results: The urban class showed a dominating pattern in the positive aspects of television viewing, such as significantly better awareness of oral health, more emphasis shown toward oral care adverts, and a higher knowledge of the cause of dental caries. However, the urban class also possessed a poor attitude; the appearance of a dentist on television did not remind them about oral needs, products with gifts pleased their children to a greater extent, they had more demanding children, parents fulfilled their children’s demand more, and they relied on the self for selection of toothpaste. Overall, in all aspects, the rural class lacked significantly.
Conclusion: Television exerts a positive as well as negative influence on children’s behavior among urban and rural communities, with the influence being more obvious in the urban class.
Clinical significance: The results of this study can be utilized in bringing about better and effective advertising oriented toward attaining optimum oral health of children; overall general health through adverts that discourage obesogenic diet and promote a diet rich in protein and fiber can also be focused on.
Keywords: Children’s behavior, Food promotion, Oral health, Television advertising, Urban and rural.
How to cite this article: Bahuguna R, Jain A, Suryavanshi D, Chauhan H, Khan SA, Thakur R. Influence of Television Advertising on Behavior of Children across Socioeconomic Backgrounds. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):52-56.
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None

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