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JAYPEE JOURNALS
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1.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Comparison between Fluoride and Nano-hydroxyapatite in Remineralizing Initial Enamel Lesion: An in vitro Study.
Issa Daas, Sherine Badr, Essam Osman
[Year:2018] [Month:March] [Volume:19 ] [Number:3] [Pages:108] [Pages No:306-312] [No of Hits : 10464]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2258 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) paste and fluoride varnish in remineralizing initial enamel lesion in young permanent teeth and their ability to resist secondary caries under dynamic pH cycling quantitatively and qualitatively.

Materials and methods: Initial caries-like lesions were artificially developed on 45 specimens. Specimens were divided into three groups: (1) Control (without treatment), (2) fluoride varnish (3M ESPE), and (3) nano-HAP paste (Desensibilize Nano P). The nano-HAP paste was applied twice separated by one pH cycle, and the varnish was applied only once followed by 7 days of pH cycling. All specimens were examined using DIAGNOdent® pen (KaVo, Germany), and a representative specimen was randomly selected from each group for qualitative evaluation using scanning electron microscope (SEM) at four stages: Baseline, after lesion formation, immediately after remineralization, and after pH cycling. Data were statistically analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.

Results: The degree of demineralization was significantly elevated in control group; however, no significant difference was found between fluoride varnish group and nano-HAP paste group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Nano-HAP paste showed promising long-term protective effect in terms of surface depositions and maintaining a smooth surface compared with fluoride varnish.

Clinical significance: Based on the findings of this study, nano- HAP paste might be recommended as alternative remineralizing agent with lower fluoride concentration than fluoride varnish that could be beneficial for children, pregnant females, and those who are at high risk of dental fluorosis.

Keywords: Enamel lesion, Nano-hydroxyapatite, Remineralization.

How to cite this article: Daas I, Badr S, Osman E. Comparison between Fluoride and Nano-hydroxyapatite in Remineralizing Initial Enamel Lesion: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(3):306-312.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  CLINICAL TECHNIQUE
Pre-endodontic Post and Core Technique for Endodontic and Prosthodontic Treatment
Keita Sasaki, Takatsugu Yamamoto, Tomoko Ikawa, Yuko Shigeta, Shuji Shigemoto, Eriko Ando,Takumi Ogawa, Keisuke Ihara
[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19 ] [Number:1] [Pages:122] [Pages No:117-122] [No of Hits : 2154]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2223 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Displacement of provisional fixed prostheses may result in undesirable and embarrassing outcomes in dental treatments, especially in endodontic treatment. Development of certain counter measures has been necessary to avoid such discomforts.

Aim: The aim of this report was to propose a pre-endodontic post and core technique to achieve smooth progress of the treatment.

Materials and methods: The patient was a 59-year-old male diagnosed with an infraocclusion caused by wear of his teeth. He received full mouth provisional fixed restorations for a complete oral rehabilitation. Displacement and fracture of the restorations frequently occurred during the observation period for the function of the restorations. Therefore, the pre-endodontic post and core technique was applied to the abutment teeth before their endodontic treatments were started. The technique consisted of three steps as follows: Step 1: Caries removal and dowel preparation were performed for the abutment teeth having apical periodontitis. Composite cores were indirectly fabricated, which had access holes for endodontic treatment. Step 2: The cores were bonded to the teeth. In endodontic treatment, rubber dam appliances were easily placed owing to the core, and proper tooth isolation was accomplished. Step 3: Fiberposts were bonded to the dowel holes through the access holes after the root canal filling. During endodontic treatment, displacement and/or fracture of the provisional restorations did not occur.

Conclusion: The pre-endodontic post and core technique was effective in obtaining improved retention of provisional restoration, appropriate isolation for endodontic treatment, and sufficient retention of the post and core.

Clinical significance: The pre-endodontic post and core technique is useful for avoiding the discomforts in dental treatments, namely, a smooth transition from endodontic to prosthodontic treatment can be achieved.

Keywords: Composites, Dental prosthesis, Post and core, Root canal treatment, Rubber dam.

How to cite this article: Sasaki K, Yamamoto T, Ikawa T, Shigeta Y, Shigemoto S, Ando E, Ogawa T, Ihara K. Pre-endodontic Post and Core Technique for Endodontic and Prosthodontic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(1):117-122.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of Total Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Mutans-specific SIgA among Children having Dissimilar Caries Status
Sunil Pandey, Mahima Goel, Ravi Nagpal, Ankita Kar, Eliezer Rapsang, Priya Matani
[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:19 ] [Number:6] [Pages:122] [Pages No:651-655] [No of Hits : 1982]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2314 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The occurrence of dental caries has become quite a common phenomenon nowadays. The varying levels of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) usually determine the progression of caries. The present study was aimed to determine the correlation between SIgA and mutans-specific antigen SIgA in children having different caries status. Scanning electron microscopic analysis was also completed to correlate the results.

Materials and methods: This study comprised 60 subjects, who were divided into three groups depending on caries status. In all, saliva was collected to determine the level of SIgA and mutans-specific antigen SIgA using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and method were used to evaluate dental caries. Bradford reagent was used to evaluate the levels of protein in the antigen. Furthermore, 20 sections of enamel were randomly obtained to estimate the severity of caries development among groups.

Results: Categorical characteristics among all groups were compared by basic statistical analysis and Chi-squared test. Mean age (years) was found to be 9.214 ± 2.28, 9.5 ± 2.51, and 10.2 ± 2.35 in groups I, II, and III respectively. Mutans-specific IgA level (μg/mL) was 34.63 ± 7.46, 28.24 ± 4.52, and 23.56 ± 1.62 in groups I, II, and III respectively. Total SIgA (μg/mL) was 142.53 ± 22.4, 186.10 ± 24.70, and 214.8 ± 27.56 in groups I, II, and III respectively. Caries index was 6.74 ± 2.16, 2.32 ± 0.86, and 0 ± 0 in groups I, II, and III respectively.

Conclusion: Immunoglobulin A is dominantly present in saliva and it plays a significant role in prevention of dental caries. Hence, dental caries is more likely to develop in subjects with low level of salivary IgA (high caries index).

Clinical significance: A low level of IgA may be associated with a high risk of developing dental caries. This association may possibly be useful in predicting the future caries status. Accordingly, suitable caries-preventive measures can be selected and employed.

Keywords: Bradford reagent, Dental caries, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Immunoglobulin, Scanning electron microscopy.

How to cite this article: Pandey S, Goel M, Nagpal R, Kar A, Rapsang E, Matani P. Evaluation of Total Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A and Mutans-specific SIgA among Children having Dissimilar Caries Status. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(6):651-655.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Extraction Planning in Orthodontics
Mustafa Harith Al-Ani, Adil Osman Mageet
[Year:2018] [Month:May] [Volume:19 ] [Number:5] [Pages:152] [Pages No:619-623] [No of Hits : 1599]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2307 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Planning extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment is one of the challenging factors for successful functional and esthetic orthodontic results and for the longterm stability.

Aim: The aim of this study is to document possible extraction guidelines for planning of orthodontic treatment for space deficiency cases related to excess tooth material.

Results: The guidelines are written as patterns to facilitate the decision of extraction of teeth for class I, class II division 1, class II division 2, and class III malocclusions, for crowding, overjet reduction, or correcting the buccal segment relationship. The decision for extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment is enforced by the oral hygiene, carious teeth, periodontal involvement, impacted teeth, supernumeraries, hypodontia, or for orthognathic purposes. Also, planning the decision for accurate extraction pattern is the main factor in the success of the orthodontic treatment and for the long-term stability of the results.

Conclusion: Orthodontic tooth extraction should always be planned with consideration of the width and length of the face, the oral hygiene, carious activity, periodontal involvement, malformed crowns, length and health of the root of the teeth, prognosis of impacted teeth, supernumeraries, and hypodontia.

Clinical significance: Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning following orthodontic extraction guidelines lead to a longterm stability of the corrected results.

Keywords: Crowding, Extraction of teeth, Hypodontia, Longterm stability, Supernumerary.

How to cite this article: Al-Ani MH, Mageet AO. Extraction Planning in Orthodontics. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(5):619-623.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Diametral Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, and Surface Microhardness of Bioactive Bulk Fill Restorative
Ali Alrahlah
[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19 ] [Number:1] [Pages:122] [Pages No:13-19] [No of Hits : 1496]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2205 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim was to perform comparative analysis of bioactive, contemporary bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) and conventional glass-ionomer materials for flexural strength (FS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) in the presence of thermocycling.

Materials and methods: Five restorative materials [Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill; smart dentin replacement (SDR) Flowable Material; Bioactive restorative material (ACTIVA Bulk Fill); Ketac Universal Aplicap; and GC Fuji II] were evaluated for DTS, FS, and VHN. Half the samples in each material group were thermocycled. The DTS was performed under compressive load at a cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/min. The FS was assessed by three-point bending test at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The VHN was determined using a Vickers diamond indenter at 50 gf load for 15 seconds. Differences in FS, DTS, and VHN were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests at α = 0.05 level of significance.

Results: N-Ceram, ACTIVA, and SDR demonstrated the highest and comparable (p > 0.05) FS. The SDR had the highest DTS value (141.28 ± 0.94), followed by N-Ceram (136.61 ± 1.56) and ACTIVA (129.05 ± 1.78). Ketac had the highest VHN value before and after thermocycling.

Conclusion: ACTIVA showed mechanical properties (FS and DTS) comparable with bulk-fill resin composite materials. ACTIVA showed potential for durability, as VHN was comparable post-thermocycling.

Clinical significance: Bioactive materials showed acceptable DTS and FS values. However, hardness was compromised compared with included materials. ACTIVA Bulk Fill shows potential for dentin replacement but it needs to be covered with a surface-resistant restorative material. Further studies to improve surface characteristics of ACTIVA Bulk Fill are recommended.

Keywords: Bioactive, Bulk fill, Mechanical properties, Resin composite, Thermocycling.

How to cite this article: Alrahlah A. Diametral Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, and Surface Microhardness of Bioactive Bulk Fill Restorative. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(1):13-19.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: Noen

 
6.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Control of Anxiety in Pediatric Patients using “Tell Show Do” Method and Audiovisual Distraction
Deepak Khandelwal, Namita Kalra, Rishi Tyagi, Amit Khatri, Komal Gupta
[Year:2018] [Month:September] [Volume:19 ] [Number:9] [Pages:125] [Pages No:1058-1064] [No of Hits : 1335]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2381 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Visiting a dentist can easily evoke strong fear reactions and acute anxiety in children. It is one of the most basic reasons for avoidance and neglect of dental care. It may obstruct delivery of dental care, as the child may be unwilling to accept the treatment being provided by the dentist.

Aim: To evaluate and compare reduction in anxiety level in patients undergoing dental treatment at first dental visit.

Technique: The study was conducted on 400 patients coming to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, for their first dental visit. Anxiety was recorded using facial image scale (FIS), Venham’s picture test (VPT), blood pressure, pulse rate (PR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) at different stages of the visit. Patients coming for the first dental visit were subjected to restorative treatment under Tell show do (TSD) method and audiovisual distraction (AVD). The data collected were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis.

Conclusion: The AVD was found to be more capable in reducing anxiety than TSD. Combination of TSD and AVD had an additive effect in reduction of anxiety level and it proved to be more beneficiary.

Clinical significance: If a child’s behavior in the dental office cannot be managed, then it is difficult to hold out any dental treatment that is needed. Bringing positivity in the child’s behavior would not only increase efficiency of work but would also make the experience for child undergoing treatment more pleasant.

Keywords: Anxiety, Audiovisual distraction, First dental visit.

How to cite this article: Khandelwal D, Kalra N, Tyagi R, Khatri A, Gupta K. Control of Anxiety in Pediatric Patients using “Tell Show Do” Method and Audiovisual Distraction. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(9):1058-1064.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of Various Sterilization Processes of Orthodontic Instruments using Biological Indicators and Conventional Swab Test Method: A Comparative Study
Rajeev Lall, Anshu Sahu, Ankita Jaiswal, Sunder Kite, AR Sowmya, MC Sainath
[Year:2018] [Month:June] [Volume:19 ] [Number:6] [Pages:122] [Pages No:698-703] [No of Hits : 1215]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2322 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to compare the efficiency of various sterilization procedures using conventional spore monitoring method, i.e., by using swab test and biological indicators and to determine the efficiency of cold sterilization by using Bioclenz-G (2% glutaraldehyde) solution.

Materials and methods: Each group was divided into medium load (containing 15 sets of instruments) and heavy load (containing 30 sets of instruments). Each group was tested 15 times for medium and heavy loads. Two groups are swab tested control group and experimental group with three different methods of sterilization: hot air oven, cold sterilization, and ethylene dioxide sterilization.

Results: Spores were present in all the groups tested for 10 minutes cycle, in comparison with no spore growth in any of the groups tested for a 10-hour cycle.

Conclusion: All methods of sterilization showed complete sterilization of instruments when monitored with biological indicators. One group of heavy load in steam autoclave and one group each of medium load and heavy load in hot air oven sterilizer showed sterilization failure when monitored with the conventional swab test method.

Clinical significance: This study proves the efficacy and durability of various sterilization procedures.

Keywords: Hot air oven, Steam autoclave, Sterilization.

How to cite this article: Lall R, Sahu A, Jaiswal A, Kite S, Sowmya AR, Sainath MC. Evaluation of Various Sterilization Processes of Orthodontic Instruments using Biological Indicators and Conventional Swab Test Method: A Comparative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(6):698-703.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Antifungal Activity of Xylitol against Candida albicans: An in vitro Study
Zahra Talattof, Azita Azad, Maryam Zahed, Nazanin Shahradnia
[Year:2018] [Month:February] [Volume:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:122] [Pages No:125-129] [No of Hits : 1001]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2225 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: The most common fungal infection among human population is candidiasis, the etiology of which is mostly Candida albicans. As a result of a disrupted balance of the normal flora or a compromised immune system, Candida species can become pathogenic. Various in vitro surveys have shown that glucose intake is a promoter of C. albicans growth, whereas in vivo studies have found that xylitol can decrease the risk of candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Hence, we aimed to evaluate for the first time the inhibitory effects of xylitol on C. albicans by assessing its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC).

Materials and methods: The standard strain of C. albicans was acquired. The fungi were incubated in supplemented brain.heart infusion broth for 48 hours at 37°C. The MIC was measured according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S24 standard. Microdilution method was applied using 360-μL sterilized polystyrene flat-bottomed 96-well plates. The antimicrobial effects were examined by the microbroth dilution method according to the CLSI M100-S24 standard.

Results: The MIC of xylitol for C. albicans was found to be 20 × 104 μg/mL. Furthermore, the concentration of 40 × 104 μg/mL with a decrease of 99.95% in the colony-forming units (CFUs) of the microorganism was found to be the MFC of xylitol for C. albicans.

Conclusion: According to the results of this survey, xylitol has considerable antimicrobial effects. Hence, this substance can be used as an effective element in gums, toothpastes, and antimicrobial mouthwashes, especially in patients with candidiasis.

Clinical significance: By knowing the MIC and MFC of xylitol, this substance can be effectively used in products aimed to cure this fungal infection.

Keywords: Candida albicans, Minimum fungicidal concentration, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Xylitol.

How to cite this article: Talattof Z, Azad A, Zahed M, Shahradnia N. Antifungal Activity of Xylitol against Candida albicans: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(2):125-129.

Source of support: The authors thank the Vice-Chancellery of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for supporting this research (Grant #8794114).

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Parental Presence/Absence in the Dental Operatory as a Behavior Management Technique: A Review and Modified View
Hicham Riba, Asma Al-Shahrani, Hayat Al-Ghutaimel, Adel Al-Otaibi, Salim Al-Kahtani
[Year:2018] [Month:February] [Volume:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:122] [Pages No:237-241] [No of Hits : 977]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2243 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Parental presence/absence in the dental operatory (also called: Parent-in-parent-out technique) is an extremely controversial aspect of the nonpharmacological BMTs. Historically, dentists used to exclude parents from dental operatory to avoid their interference with the dentist’s aptitude to build a rapport and relationship with the child, hence increasing the child management problems by disrupting treatment and making the dentist unfocused and uncomfortable.

Aim: The purpose of this article is to review and emphasize on the importance of parental presence/absence in the dental operatory, especially in a certain age group, as a behavior management technique (BMT) in pediatric dentistry, and to present a modified view of this technique.

Results: This article reviews the current literature concerning behavior management in pediatric dentistry. It includes a medline database search and review of the comprehensive textbooks in pediatric dentistry. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians.

Conclusion: Parent-in-parent-out technique in dental operatory is advocated to gain emotional support and avoid the effect of traumatic separation, especially in younger children or special health-care needs patients.

Clinical significance: The parent-in-parent-out technique in dental operatory is underused, or misused. This article clarifies the proper use of this technique along with a minor modification to it to make it more effective on young apprehensive dental patients.

Keywords: Behavior management, Dental operatory, Parental absence, Parental presence, Pediatric dentistry.

How to cite this article: Riba H, Al-Shahrani A, Al-Ghutaimel H, Al-Otaibi A, Al-Kahtani S. Parental Presence/Absence in the Dental Operatory as a Behavior Management Technique: A Review and Modified View. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(2):237-241

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  EDITORIAL
Probiotics in Caries Prevention
V Naveen Kumar, Madhuram Krishnamurthy, Saravanan Poorni, Shankargouda Patil, A Thirumal Raj
[Year:2018] [Month:February] [Volume:19 ] [Number:2] [Pages:122] [Pages No:123-124] [No of Hits : 932]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2224 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Past few decades have seen a significant increase in the prevalence of dental caries at a global scale. To reduce the pervasiveness of cariogenic microflora, various efforts have been undertaken. However, completely eradicating caries-associated microorganisms has been futile.1 Endogenous bacteria, such as Lactobacillus species, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus persisting in biofilms ferment carbohydrate and produce weak organic acids as by-products.

How to cite this article: Kumar VN, Krishnamurthy M, Poorni S, Patil S, Raj AT. Probiotics in Caries Prevention. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(2):123-124.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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